When Samuel Colt invented the revolver as we know it, he turned the handgun world on its nose. Most handguns were horse pistols or pocket guns similar in design to rifles, they were simply shorter. The Colt revolver had to be designed to stabilize the firing hand to allow thumb cocking and to present the sights for proper aiming. Either way, this article details Old Iron at its best!
The Colt revolver was an offensive firearm and a credible military firearm that hastened the western movement. In short, it was an immensely important invention. Smith and Wesson’s original handgun was a lever-action design that led to the Winchester repeating rifle, but that is another story. By the time of the Civil War both Smith and Wesson and Colt were manufacturing viable revolver designs.
After the war, both companies manufactured distinctive revolvers. The hinged frame, and later break top, Smith and Wesson revolvers competed with Colt’s solid frame revolvers. The Colt sold better domestically while Smith and Wesson armed Russia and Japan among other armies. During the 1880s Colt began development of swing out cylinder double action revolvers that would bring the two companies’ products much closer in design and appearance.
Colt’s revolvers such as the New Pocket featured a swing out cylinder, cylinder latch that pulled to the rear, and a smooth double action trigger. Smith and Wesson followed suit with the Hand Ejector, a similar size .32 caliber revolver. The Colt .32 Long is smaller in diameter than the .32 Smith and Wesson Long and will not interchange. At this point in time, the companies were producing revolvers that in many ways were more similar than they differed.
In a few years, there was another strong unifying moment in the handgun world. Previously, there had been proprietary cartridges for each maker. The .32 Colt, .32 Smith and Wesson, .38 Colt, and .38 Smith and Wesson were among these. In general, the .32 and .38 Colt cartridges were smaller and would chamber in the S&W chambers, but the cartridge case often split on firing. A big change occurred with the introduction of the Smith and Wesson Military and Police .38 revolver.
The .38 Colt was a dismal failure in action in the Philippines and at home. The U.S. Army asked for a revolver more robust than the Colt 1892 and a more powerful cartridge. Smith and Wesson lengthened the .38 Long Colt cartridge slightly and improved performance from a 152-grain bullet at 750 fps to a 158-grain bullet at 850 fps. The .38 Special became the most popular revolver cartridge of all time. The older .38s were eclipsed.
While the Colt Single Action Army remained popular past its prime, the primary spear point of competition for the two makers was in double action .38 Special revolvers. They traded in the top position in sales for some 50 years. During the 1930s the race was real with Colt having an edge. By the 1970s Smith and Wesson carried three quarters of the police market.
Many felt Smith and Wesson had the edge when they reinvested war time profits in new machinery and models after World War II. Colt introduced some models such as the Python, but Smith and Wesson introduced more models at more attractive prices. Eventually, Smith and Wesson enjoyed a considerable price advantage over Colt for similar handguns.
When I was growing up during the 1960s and beginning a lifelong interest in revolvers, my grandfather expressed a common opinion. He told me that he would not flip for the difference between the two. His favorite revolver was a Smith and Wesson Military and Police, but he liked the Colt Detective Special better than the Smith and Wesson Chief’s Special. I have pretty much the same preference.
I think that while the revolvers looked similar and handled the same, there were differences in the grip and trigger action that had appeal to different shooters. The price point and good performance made Smith and Wesson the leader. There were many excellent revolvers manufactured during the heyday of this competition. The Combat Masterpiece, Shooting Master, Target Masterpiece, Trooper, Highway Patrolman, Python, Detective Special, Chief’s Special, Cobra, Python and Combat Magnum were among them. Adjustable sights, ramp front sights, shrouded ejector rods, target triggers and hammers, trigger stops, and red insert front sights were introduced. Just the same, the revolver manufactured in the greatest numbers was the plain, vanilla, Military and Police revolver.
The differences in the revolvers were seldom based on quality of manufacture. While each may have had an occasional bad run, this was rare. There were high points of production for each company. The Smith and Wesson Combat Magnum was probably the best-balanced revolver of all time. Light enough for constant carry, durable in long use, accurate, smooth in operation, and firing the best man stopper we are likely to invent, this .357 Magnum revolver was a prestige revolver.
The shrouded ejector rod and high visibility sights were important advantages. The K frame .38 has a skinny frame for use with Magnums, but the development of target stocks and rubber recoil absorbing stocks went a long way toward taming magnum recoil.
The Colt action differed, and while smooth enough, the Colt was the more likely to go out of time after hard use. The Colt revolver’s cylinder rotates right into the frame, the Smith and Wesson to the left, and the rifling is also different. Today, those who appreciate old iron are happy to find either revolver at a fair price.
The heyday of the revolver may be over as far as law enforcement is concerned. But many of us find the revolver suits our needs well. Most are highly accurate and offer plenty of power. When I am hiking or traveling around Appalachia, the Blue Ridge, and the Smokies, I sometimes find myself in the vicinity of feral dogs and other dangerous wildlife. The big cats are sometimes aggressive—I will never forget that my grandmother’s cousin, a small child, was killed by a panther in the early 1920s. Fifty years later she recounted the story as if it were yesterday.
I like something on my hip in the wild. A heavy loaded .38 Special or a .357 Magnum revolver just feels right. Will the revolver be a Colt or a Smith and Wesson? I own and enjoy both, more Colts than Smiths and would hate to part with either. Just the same, the gun on the hip is usually a Colt Python. But sometimes, it is a Colt Single Action Army .45 or a beautifully smooth Colt .357. I guess we know who won the battle with me but lost the war.
Do you have a piece of Old Iron that tops your list of favorite handguns? Share it in the comment section.
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